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R.A. Gregory's  Identification of Disputed Documents, Fingerprints and Ballistics R.A. Gregory's  Identification of Disputed Documents, Fingerprints and Ballistics
× R.A. Gregory's  Identification of Disputed Documents, Fingerprints and Ballistics
R.A. Gregory's Identification of Disputed Documents, Fingerprints and Ballistics
by Revised K. Kumar
Edition: 5th Edition, 2005
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Product Details:
Format: Paperback
Pages: 336 pages
Publisher: Eastern Book Company
Language: English
Dimensions: 24.2 CM X 1.95 CM X 16 CM
Shipping Weight: 0.696(Kg)
Publisher Code: B/396
Date Added: 2001-01-01
Search Category: Lawbooks
Jurisdiction: Indian
Overview:

Originally written by Russell A. Gregory out of his three decades of experience and expertise, the fourth edition of this popular book has been ably revised by Shri K. Kumar. It completely covers equipment and techniques used in the analysis of handwriting, typewriting, printed matter, fingerprints and firearms. It also contains a section on expert evidence.

With a view to giving the reader a deeper insight into the subjects of identification, the revising author has enlarged the book and added fresh material relating to the recent developments in science and their application. Details of novel techniques that are quick, sensitive and more accurate, and are in keeping with the modern techniques being adopted by the present day criminals have also been given. All this makes the book more useful and an asset in sorting out cases of conflicting opinions given by different experts.

A must for legal practitioners, police officers, law enforcement agencies, courts and others concerned with this field.

Reviews
  • Delhi Law Review : The book is a valuable addition to the existing literature and covers in a comprehensive way, identification of disputed documents, finger prints and ballistics and their use in establishing the actual accused in a criminal case. It will be of great relevance to students of criminalistics, lawyers and the judges dealing with criminal cases. The book deals with conceptual explanations in general and has also documented the important case-law. Its style is lucid which makes it worth reading. The book opens up new vistas for scholars in the field of criminalistics.
  • Kerala Law Times : The lifelong experience of Shri Russell A. Gregory as a Handwriting and Fingerprint Expert coupled with deep learning of law has made this book a unique contribution to the legal profession. The discussion of the different topics covered in the respective chapters, is supported by a wealth of authorities consisting of the writings of jurists and judgments, both Indian and Foreign. The book is the result of prodigious labour and bears the imprint of scholarship and industry. This book though handy and compact, conveys a realistic portrayal of all phases of the topic making it a valuable contribution.
  • Law Books in Review, U.S.A. : The book is really three books in one with an appendix on testifying in court and aimed at giving judges, lawyers and laypersons, an overview of forensic sciences. The illustrations are helpful and there is also an index.
  • All India Reporter : The book would be of great help to the experts, busy lawyers and Judges in grasping the problems arising in courts and in investigations of crimes.
  • Cuttack Law Times : This is a book written by an expert of ample practical experience in the sphere, in a very illuminative but lucid language.

Table Of Contents:
PART I : DISPUTED DOCUMENTS
                   PREFACE TO THE FOURTH EDITION V
                   PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION IX
                   PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION X

CHAPTER I : INTRODUCTION
                   Illustrations 3

CHAPTER II : WRITING CHARACTERISTICS
                   Co-ordination of the writing muscles 8
                   Movement 8
                   Relative size of letters and words 9
                   Relative positioning of letter, words etc. 11
                   Slant and relative slant of letters, words, etc. 11
                   Alignment 12
                   Shape of letters 13
                   Method of production of letters 13
                   Line quality 14
                   Pen presentation and shading 14
                   Pen pressure 15
                   Arrangement of words, sentence and paragraphs 16
                   Rhythmic production of writing 16
                   Speed of writing 16
                   Embellishment 16
                   Arrangement of Handwriting 16
                   Skill 17
                   Individual Idiosyncrasies 17

CHAPTER III : HANDWRITING EXPERT AND EXAMINATION PROBLEMS
                   Introduction 18
                   Preliminary question for determination 18
                   What the documents laboratory can do 20
                   Problems which cannot be solved in a Documents laboratory 20
                   Standard for comparison 23
                   Procedure for obtaining suitable standards for comparison 24
                   Standard materials for comparison with typewritten matter 26
                   Care of Documents 27
                   Instructions for Collection and Packing on Exhibits 28

CHAPTER IV : LABORATORY EQUIPMENTS
                   Introduction 29
                   The Laboratory itself 29
                   Working Bench 29
                   Lighting Arrangement 29
                   Natural light 30
                   Electromagnetic Radiations 30
                   Ultra-voilet Rays 31
                   Uses of Ultra-violet rays in other fields of investigation 34
                   Colour of the object to be photographed 35
                   Typical and convenient equipment 36
                   Infra-red rays 37
                   Emission 38
                   Optical Equipments 39
                   Microscope 40
                   Measuring instruments 41
                   Photographic equipment 43
                   Document photography 43
                   Chromoscope 44   
                   Electron Microscope 45
                   Thin layer chromatography 46
                   Video spectral comparator 47

CHAPTER V : WRITING EQUIPMENTS
                   Pens 49
                   Pencil 50
                   Tests for distinction 51
                   Chemical or destructive tests 52
                   Inks 53
                   Fountain-pen ink 54
                   Fibre-tip pens 56
                   Problems in examination 56
                   Methods of examination 56
                   Paper 57
                   Manufacture of paper 58
                   Classification of paper material 59
                   Tests for papers 59

CHAPTER VI : TYPEWRITER AND EXAMINATION OF
TYPEWRITTEN MATTER
                   Introduction 61
                   Classification of makes and models of typewriters in India 62
                   Identification of typewriter 63
                   General consideration 63
                   Individual characteristics 65
                   Has the whole document been typed on the same typewriter 66
                   Has the whole document been typed at the same time 66
                   Thin layer chromatography 67
                   Identification of the operator 68
                   Times since typed 69

CHAPTER VII : ANONYMOUS LETTERS
                   Introduction 70
                   Classification of anonymous letters 71
                   Typical cases and investigations 72

CHAPTER VIII : ABNORMAL WRITING
                   Introduction 76
                   Unusual writing conditions 76
                   Intentional 77
                   Disguised writing 77
                   Important features of disguised writings 79
                   Writings by unaccustomed hand 80
                   Habitual writings 84
                   Examination for finger-print impressions 85

CHAPTER IX : FORGERY AND DETECTION
                   Introduction 86
                   Classification of forgeries 86
                   Traced forgery characteristics 89
                   Examination and court demonstration 89

CHAPTER X : EXAMINATION AND COMPARISON OF HANDWRITING
                   Introduction 91
                   Graphoscopy 91
                   General characteristics 92
                   Individual characteristics 94
                   Graphometry 95
                   Technique of Graphometric Analysis 96
                   General Rule of measurement 96

CHAPTER XI : PRINTED MATTER
                   Introduction 101
                   Printing Press 101
                   Mechanical type setting 102
                   Printing technology 102
                   Type characters 102
                   Approximate size of type in General use 102
                   Composing 103
                   Monotype 103
                   Forgery in Lottery Tickets 103
                   Alteration of the lottery ticket number to match the winning number 103
                   Forged printing 104
                   Forgery in currency notes 105
                   Distinction between a genuine and forged note 105
                   Spurious books 106

CHAPTER XII : EXAMINATION OF CHARRED DOCUMENTS
                   Introduction 108
                   Stabilization 108
                   Deciperment 109

CHAPTER XIII : ALTERATION, ADDITION, ERASURES AND OTHER QUESTIONED DOCUMENTS PROBLEMS
                   Introduction 111
                   Alteration 111
                   Additions 111
                   Erasures 112
                   Invisible writings and their Decipherment 113
                   Cryptography 114

CHAPTER XIV : PROBLEM OF PROOF IN COURT
                   Mode of Proof of Handwriting 116
                   Value to be attached to lay witnesses 118
                   Probative value of Handwriting Expert's Opinion 118
                   Comparison of Handwriting/Signature by the Court 120
                   Knowledge of Script by the Expert 122
                   Conflict of opinion between two experts 122
                   Typewriter Identification 124
                   Effect of non-submission of expert's opinion 125
                   Forgery in, Currency Note 125

PART II : FINGER PRINT
CHAPTER I : BRIEF HISTORY OF FINGERPRINT SCIENCE
                   Introduction 129
                   Historical Background 129
                   Importance of Finger Impressions 131
                   Basis of Identification Through Finger Print 132
                   No. of points necessary to establish identity 132
                   The ridge characteristics of fingers do not undergo any change
                   during an individual's lifetime 136
                   Fingerprints have such ridge patterns that permit them to be
                   systematically classified 137

CHAPTER II : FINGERPRINT PATTERNS
                   Patterns 138
                   Definitions 138
                   Congenital Abnormality 148
                   Dermabrasion 149
                   Occupational marks 150

CHAPTER III : RIDGE CHARACTERISTICS
                   Introduction 151
                   Characteristics formed by single ridge 151
                   Characteristics formed by two or more ridges 152

CHAPTER IV : FINGERPRINT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM
                   Introduction 154
                   Henry Classification System 154
                   Primary Classification System 154
                   The Secondary Classification System 156
                   The Sub-secondary Classification System 156
                   Whorl Tracings 157
                   Ridge counting 158
                   New Method of Ridge Counting and Ridge Tracing 159
                   Lettered Group Method 160
                   Major Divisional System 161
                   Single Digit System 162

CHAPTER V : LATENT FINGER IMPRESSIONS
                   Introduction 166
                   Development of Finger Impressions 166
                   Equipment for development at the scene of crime 171
                   Lifting of finger-print 171
                   Lifting tape 172
                   Silicon Rubber 172
                   Benzidine solution 172

CHAPTER VI : HOW TO TAKE FINGER IMPRESSION
                   Introduction 174
                   Method of taking Finger Impressions in Special Cases 175
                   Principle and Technique 177
                   Fingerprinting a decomposed dead body 177

CHAPTER VII : METHOD OF EXAMINATION OF TWO FINGERPRINTS
                   Introduction 180
                   The Matrix Process (Albert Wehde) 180
                   The Fingerprint Stamp (Herald Cummins) 181
                   Process Block 181
                   Transmogrification, Scarification and Dermabrasions 181
                   Method of Examination 182
                   Intrinsic Examination 182
                   Extrinsic Study 183
                   Identity by Microscopic Ridge Details 185
                   Edgescopy 186
                   Palm (Hand) and Sole and Toe (Foot) Print 186
                   Sole Prints 189

CHAPTER VIII : FINGERPRINT EVIDENCE
                   Notable cases and case laws 191
                   Admissibility of Fingerprint evidence without the physical presence
                   of expert 192
                   Expert's opinion on a partial print 193
                   Presentation of Fingerprint Evidence 193
                   Probative value of Fingerprint opinion 194
                   Thumb impression is a science of exactitude 195
                   Can a Magistrate direct a person to give thumb impression? 196
                   Footprint 197
                   Footprint/shoeprint comparisons 198

CHAPTER IX : THE EXPERT IN COURT
                   Examination in Chief 199
                   Examination-in-Chief (Questions & Answers) 200
                   Cross Examination 202

PART III : BALLISTICS
CHAPTER I : INTRODUCTION
                   Historical outfit 208
                   Gradual development of firearms 209
                   The Wheel-Lock 210
                   The Flint-Lock 210
                   Percussion Lock 211
                   Breech Loading 211

CHAPTER II : FIREARMS
                   Smooth bore weapons 213
                   Bore 213
                   Calibre 213
                   Exceptions 214
                   Shot-Guns 214
                   Single barrelled 214
                   Double barrelled Guns 215
                   Choke 216
                   Muskets 217
                   Mixed Guns 217
                   Paradox Guns 217
                   Rifled Arms 218
                   Effect of rifling 218
                   Types of Rifled small arms 218
                   Rifles 218
                   Pistols 219
                   Revolver 220
                   Sub-machine Guns 221
                   Light machine Guns 222
                   Air Guns and Air rifles 222
                   Assault Rifles 222

CHAPTER III : SMALL ARMS AMMUNITION
                   Composition of Ammunition 224
                   Grading of Black Powder 225
                   Semi-Smokeless Powder 226
                   Priming Mixture 226
                   Percussion Caps 226
                   Projectiles 227
                   Bullet 228
                   Cannelure 229
                   Shot-Gun Projectiles 229
                   Shots/Pellets 230
                   Wads 232
                   Turn over 233
                   Lubricants 233
                   Cartridge Shell 233

CHAPTER IV : IDENTIFICATION OF FIREARMS
                   Identification from fired cartridge cases - Firing pin and
                   breech-face markings 236
                   Extractor mark 237
                   Ejector marks 237
                   Drag mark 238
                   Chamber marks 239
                   Unusual marks 239
                   Bullets 239
                   Bullet fired through smooth-bore weapons 241
                   Identification from fired shots and bullets 241
                   Court decisions on identification 242
                   Importance of photograph for presentation of evidence 245

CHAPTER V : RANGE OF A GUN
                   Maximum Horizontal Range 248
                   Maximum Vertical Range 248
                   Effective Range 248
                   Dangerous Range 248
                   Safe Range 248
                   Range in the forensic sense 249
                   Contact Range 249
                   Point Blank/Near Contact Range 249
                   Near Contact Range 250
                   Chips range 251
                   Distance beyond chips range 251
                   Range of bullets fired by rifles 251
                   Effect of bullet at range between 600-1200 yards 253
                   Effect at range exceeding 1200 yards 253
                   Wound caused by Machine guns 253
                   Case Laws 253

CHAPTER VI : SHOT GUN BALLISTICS
                   Introduction 256
                   Contact shot 256
                   Near contact shot 256
                   Range within 1 to 3 yards 257
                   Range between 3-6 yards 257
                   Range between 6 to 10 yards 257
                   Range beyond 40 yards 258
                   Range estimation from percentage of pellets on a given target 258
                   Wounding power and Casualty criteria 259
                   Behaviour of wads 260

CHAPTER VII : COUNTRYMADE GUN
                   Range assessment 262
                   Penetrating capability 263
                   Direction of Fire 263
                   Identification problems 264

CHAPTER VIII : HOMICIDE, SUICIDES AND ACCIDENTS BY FIREARMS
                   Section 300 265
                   Suicide 266
                   Accident 266
                   Illustrative cases 268

CHAPTER IX : RANDUM NOTES
                   Rules of safety 268
                   How to Disarm 268
                   How to deal with an armed suspect 270

CHAPTER X : MEDICO-LEGAL INVESTIGATIONS
                   Section 174: Criminal Procedure Code, 1973   272
                   Section 175: Criminal Procedure Code, 1973   273
                   Section 176: Criminal Procedure Code, 1973   273
                   Value of inquest report 274
                   Conflict between Inquest-Report & Post-mortem Report 274
                   Post-mortem examination 275

CHAPTER XI : EXPERT'S OPINION - A FEW COURT RULINGS
                   Importance of the inspection of the scene of occurrence 277
                   Effect of non-production of expert evidence 278
                   What are Arms and Ammunition 278

PART IV : EXPERT EVIDENCE
CHAPTER I : EXPERT EVIDENCE - GENERAL
                   Introduction 283
                   When expert evidence is to be admitted 284
                   Common witness vis-a-vis expert witness 285
                   Who are experts? 286
                   Competency of expert 287
                   Qualities of an expert 288
                   Judicial approach 289
                   Expert Evidence should be Demonstrative 290

CHAPTER II : THE EXPERT IN COURT
                   Introduction 291
                   Court Procedure and the witness 291
                   Mode of Issue of Summons 291
                   Administration of Oath 292
                   Recall witness 293
                   Hints on Giving Evidence 294
                   Preparation of the testimony 294
                   Some Do's and Don'ts 295
                   SUBJECT INDEX 297

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