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Sexual Violence Against Women - Penal Law And Human Rights Perspectives, 2009 Sexual Violence Against Women - Penal Law And Human Rights Perspectives, 2009
× Sexual Violence Against Women - Penal Law And Human Rights Perspectives, 2009
Sexual Violence Against Women - Penal Law And Human Rights Perspectives, 2009
by Vandana
Edition: 1st Edition, 2009
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Product Details:
Format: Hard Cover
Publisher: Lexis Nexis
Language: English
ISBN: 9788180381782
Dimensions:
Shipping Weight: 2.000(Kg)
Date Added: 2016-10-17
Search Category: Lawbooks
Jurisdiction: Indian
Overview:


Sexual Violence Against Women—Human Rights and Penal Perspective focuses on sexual violence: its concepts, determinants and dimensions. It endeavours to analyse it from the legal and human rights perspective. The book explores the deep interlinking between gender and sexual violence. It traces the development of Indian law in each case. The book elaborately analyses various critical legal issues related to rape and sexual harassment and the judicial response in each case as exhibited through the decisions of higher judiciary with a focus on the decisions of the Supreme Court of India. This book will prove to be an indispensable aide for students, teachers, researchers, academicians, members of the Bar and Judiciary, and for anyone interested in the legal and human rights issues related to sexual violence.



Table Of Contents:

Preface ................................................................................................. vii
Bibliography ......................................................................................... ix
Contents ........................................................................................... xxxv
List of Cases ...................................................................................... xlvii
PART-A
INTRODUCTORY
CHAPTER 1
Sexual Violence—Concept And Determinants: Feminist And
Human Rights Perspectives ..................................................... 3
INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................... 3
THE CONCEPT OF GENDER VIOLENCE ..................................................... 5
THE CONCEPT OF SEXUAL VIOLENCE ....................................................... 6
OCCURRENCE OF SEXUAL VIOLENCE—A GLOBAL PHENOMENON ..............10
DETERMINANTS OF SEXUAL VIOLENCE ....................................................15
Unequal Power Relations in Society ..............................................15
Cultural Practices and Ideology .....................................................16
Control of Women’s Sexuality ........................................................17
Patterns of Conflict Resolution ......................................................17
The Private/Public Dichotomy .....................................................18
IMPACT OF SEXUAL VIOLENCE ................................................................19
INTERLINKAGES BETWEEN SEX, GENDER, SEXUALITY AND VIOLENCE—
THE FEMINIST PERSPECTIVE ..............................................................20
The Constructs of Sex and Gender ................................................20
Sexuality, Masculinity and Violence ..............................................22
Patriarchy, Sexuality and Violence .................................................24
Law as an Instrument for Perpetuating Patriarchal Interests .........27
SEXUAL VIOLENCE: THE HUMAN RIGHTS PERSPECTIVE .............................28
Sexual Violence and AIDS .............................................................30
Sexual Violence as a War Crime .....................................................31
Sexual Violence as an Issue of Development and
Reproductive Rights ................................................................35
State’s Responsibility .....................................................................36
CHAPTER 2 .................................................................................... 39
Dimensions of Sexual Violence—Diverse Forms and Sites of
Occurrence in Family, Community and State ........................ 39
FORMS OF SEXUAL VIOLENCE ..................................................................39
SEXUAL VIOLENCE OCCURRING IN THE FAMILY .........................................40
Female Genital Mutilations ...........................................................40
Pledging of Girls for Religious, Cultural And Economic Appeasement
........................................................................................43
Incest ..............................................................................................44
Marital Rape ..................................................................................45
Child Marriages .............................................................................46
Forced Marriages ............................................................................47
SEXUAL VIOLENCE OCCURRING IN THE COMMUNITY .................................48
Rape ...............................................................................................49
Sexual Harassment .........................................................................51
Prostitution ....................................................................................53
SEXUAL VIOLENCE PERPETUATED/CONDONED BY THE STATE ......................56
Custodial Violence .........................................................................57
Trafficking for Forced Prostitution .................................................58
Sexual Violence During Armed Conflicts ......................................60
Sexual Slavery .................................................................................61
PART-B
RAPE
CHAPTER 3
Rape—Concept, Myths and Realities .......................................... 67
THE CONCEPT OF RAPE .........................................................................67
REACTIONS TO RAPE ..............................................................................69
Reactions of the Rape Victim ........................................................69
Reactions of the Society .................................................................71
UNDER REPORTING OF THE CRIME .........................................................72
INCIDENCE OF RAPE ...............................................................................73
MYTHS AND REALITIES ..........................................................................76
1. Only Certain Types of Women—Young and
Attractive—Get Raped ............................................................76
2. Men rape because of uncontrollable sexual urges .....................77
3. ‘Women ask for it’ .....................................................................78
4. Women Get Raped by Strangers in Alleys,
Parks and Cars .........................................................................78
5. Women ‘Cry Rape’ to Get Revenge Against a Man .................79
RAPE—A CRIME OF POWER ....................................................................80
RAPE—COERCION OF MASCULINITY, POWER IMBALANCES AND
STATUS OF PROPERTY CRIME ..............................................................80
Cultural Context of Rape ..............................................................82
CHAPTER 4
Rape—The Development of Law................................................ 87
HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE UNDER DIFFERENT LEGAL SYSTEMS ...................87
OVERVIEW OF RAPE LEGISLATIONS IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES ........................87
RAPE LAW IN INDIA ................................................................................94
Rape Law in Ancient India ............................................................94
Macaulay’s Penal Code and Rape Law in British India .................95
LAW SINCE INDEPENDENCE TILL THE MATHURA CASE ............................ 100
THE MATHURA CASE, CAMPAIGN FOR AMENDMENTS AND THE
84TH LAW COMMISSION REPORT ................................................... 103
The Substantive Law................................................................... 104
Arrest and Investigation .............................................................. 106
Medical Examination of Accused and the Victim ...................... 107
Trial in Camera and Publication of Proceedings
During Trial .......................................................................... 107
Evidence ...................................................................................... 107
THE BILL OF 1980, JOINT PARLIAMENTARY COMMITTEE REPORT
OF 1982 AND THE AMENDMENT BILL OF 1983 .............................. 108
THE EXISTING LAW -THE CRIMINAL LAW (AMENDMENT)
ACT 1983 ................................................................................... 110
SUGGESTIONS PROPOSED BY THE LAW COMMISSION OF INDIA—
THE 156TH AND 172ND REPORTS ............................................... 113
Substantive Law .......................................................................... 114
The Code of Criminal Procedure 1973 ...................................... 115
Indian Evidence Act 1872 .......................................................... 116
THE EXISTING LAW—THE CODE OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE
(AMENDMENT) ACT 2005 ............................................................ 117
CHAPTER 5
Rape—Critical Analysis of Various Issues Relating to
the Concept ..........................................................................119
ISSUES RELATING TO CONCEPTUALISATION OF RAPE ............................... 120
Classification of Offence: Rape—Sexual Offence or Assault? ..... 120
Sexist Bias Against Victim .......................................................... 123
Woman as a Liar—False Accusations of Rape ....................... 125
Woman as a Temptress—Victim Precipitated Rape ................ 128
THE DEFINITION OF RAPE .................................................................. 131
Vaginal Penetration vis-à-vis Digital Rape .................................. 131
The Spousal Exception Clause—Marital Rape ...................... 137
CHAPTER 6
Rape—Critical Analysis of Various Issues
Relating to the Trial..............................................................145
CONSENT OF THE VICTIM .................................................................. 147
Injuries—The Proof of Resistance .............................................. 150
Acquaintance Rape ...................................................................... 153
The Legal Provisions Relating to Consent .................................. 157
THE CORROBORATION REQUIREMENT ................................................... 163
The Doctrine of Recent Complaint ........................................... 168
PAST SEXUAL HISTORY OF THE VICTIM ............................................... 170
Legal Provisions Related to Past Sexual History ......................... 175
Rape-Shield Law ......................................................................... 178
CONDUCTING THE TRIAL AND PUBLICITY DURING THE TRIAL ............... 180
In Camera Trial ........................................................................... 180
Publicity During the Trial .......................................................... 182
CHAPTER 7
The Judicial Approach: Critical Analysis of Judicial
Decisions in Rape Cases .......................................................185
PART A
PUNISHMENT IN RAPE CASES ................................................................ 187
PUNISHMENT IN RAPE CASES UNDER THE UNAMENDED LAW ................. 190
PUNISHMENT IN RAPE CASES UNDER THE AMENDED LAW ...................... 194
PART B
ANALYSIS OF SUPREME COURT DECISIONS IN RAPE CASES OVER THE LAST
DECADE ....................................................................................... 206
CONSENT OF THE VICTIM ................................................................... 206
Injuries as Proof of Resistance ..................................................... 207
Acquaintance Rape ...................................................................... 211
THE CORROBORATION REQUIREMENT ................................................... 215
Delay in Reporting Rape ............................................................ 220
PAST SEXUAL HISTORY OF THE VICTIM ................................................. 223
PART-C
SEXUAL HARASSMENT
CHAPTER 8
Sexual Harassment—Concept, Myths and Realities ..................229
THE CONCEPT OF SEXUAL HARASSMENT ............................................... 230
FORMS OF SEXUAL HARASSMENT ........................................................... 232
IMPACT OF SEXUAL HARASSMENT .......................................................... 233
Impact on the Victim ................................................................. 234
Impact on the Organisation ....................................................... 236
THE PROBLEM OF UNDER REPORTING .................................................. 237
INCIDENCE OF SEXUAL HARASSMENT ..................................................... 238
MYTHS AND REALITIES ....................................................................... 241
Sexual Harassment is Fun ........................................................... 241
Women Make False Allegations of Sexual Harassment
at Work ................................................................................. 242
Sexual Harassment is Trivial ........................................................ 242
Professional Women do Not Suffer Sexual Harassment ............. 243
Sexual Harassment is for Women to Handle .............................. 244
SEXUAL HARASSMENT—A POWER CRIME .............................................. 244
Sexual Harassment and the Role of Community ....................... 245
Sexism and Sexual Harassment ................................................... 246
The Sex Role Spillover ................................................................ 248
Sex Role Socialisation and Sexual Harassment ...................... 250
CHAPTER 9
Sexual Harassment—The Development of Law ........................253
HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE UNDER DIFFERENT LEGAL SYSTEMS ................ 253
OVERVIEW OF SEXUAL HARASSMENT LEGISLATIONS IN
FOREIGN COUNTRIES ..................................................................... 253
SEXUAL HARASSMENT LAW IN INDIA ..................................................... 261
THE LAW ON MOLESTATION AND EVE-TEASING ..................................... 261
Existing Law ................................................................................ 261
SUGGESTIONS PROPOSED BY THE LAW COMMISSION OF INDIA .................. 265
LAW ON SEXUAL HARASSMENT AT WORKPLACE ...................................... 267
The Existing Law ........................................................................ 267
OFFICE MEMORANDA ISSUED BY GOVERNMENT OF INDIA ....................... 272
CODE OF CONDUCT AND DRAFT BILLS BY THE NATIONAL COMMISSION FOR
WOMEN ....................................................................................... 274
The Code of Conduct ................................................................. 274
(1) General Features ............................................................ 274
(2) Complaint Mechanism .................................................. 274
(3) Conducting Inquiry by Complaints Committee and
Subsequent Action ..................................................... 275
(4) Duties of the Employer .................................................... 275
(5) Annual Report ............................................................... 275
The NCW Draft Bills ................................................................. 275
CHAPTER 10
Sexual Harassment—Critical Analysis of Various
Issues Relating to the Concept .............................................285
THE DEFINITION OF SEXUAL HARASSMENT ............................................ 287
THE COMMONLY PREVAILING DEFINITIONS ........................................... 289
The Academic Discourse ............................................................ 290
The Illusion of ‘Normalcy’ ......................................................... 293
The Test of Reasonableness ......................................................... 295
The Contemporary Legal Approach ........................................... 297
SEXUAL HARASSMENT AND FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION .............................. 299
CHAPTER 11 .................................................................................307
Sexual Harassment—Critical Analysis of Various Issues
Relating to the Implementation of Law................................307
SEXUAL HARASMENT—CIVIL WRONG OR A CRIME ? ............................. 308
Equal Opportunity Laws ............................................................ 308
Labour Laws ................................................................................ 309
Tort Laws ..................................................................................... 310
Criminal Laws ............................................................................. 310
THE CONCEPT OF MODESTY ............................................................... 313
LIABILITY OF THE EMPLOYER ................................................................ 317
SEXUAL HARASSMENT IN UNIVERSITIES/EDUCATIONAL INSITUTIONS ......... 324
CHAPTER 12 .................................................................................327
The Judicial Approach: Critical Analysis of Judicial Decisions in
Sexual Harassment Cases .....................................................327
ANALYSIS OF SUPREME COURT DECISIONS IN MOLESTATION CASES ........ 328
Molestation and Attempt to Rape .............................................. 334
ANALYSIS OF SUPREME COURT DECISIONS IN EVE-TEASING CASES .......... 336
ANALYSIS OF SUPREME COURT DECISIONS IN SEXUAL HARASSMENT AT
WORKPLACE CASES ........................................................................ 336
PART - D
CONCLUSIONS
CHAPTER 13
Conclusions and Suggestions .....................................................345
PART A
THE MAIN CONCLUSIONS ................................................................... 345
SEXUAL VIOLENCE-THE FEMINIST PERSPECTIVE ..................................... 348
SEXUAL VIOLENCE-THE HUMAN RIGHTS PERSPECTIVE ........................... 350
RAPE AS AN ILLUSTRATIVE FORM OF SEXUAL VIOLENCE ........................ 351
SEXUAL HARASSMENT AS AN ILLUSTRATIVE FORM OF SEXUAL VIOLENCE . 355
THE JUDICIAL RESPONSE IN RAPE AND SEXUAL HARASSMENT CASES ....... 361
PART B
SUGGESTIONS REGARDING THE AMENDMENTS IN LAW AND REFORMS IN
ENFORCEMENT MACHINERY ........................................................... 363
SUGGESTIONS RELATING TO RAPE LAW............................................... 363
A. The Substantive Law .............................................................. 363
1. Classification and Definition ........................................... 363
2. Aggravating Circumstances .............................................. 364
3. Consent ........................................................................... 364
4. Punishment ..................................................................... 365
B. Evidence ................................................................................. 365
C. Procedure ............................................................................... 366
1. Trial ................................................................................ 366
2. Publicity during the Trial ................................................. 367
D. Training Programmes and Special Courts ............................. 367
E. Compensation to the Victim ................................................. 368
F. Rape Crisis Centres ................................................................. 369
SUGGESTIONS RELATING TO SEXUAL HARASSMENT LAW .......................... 370
A. The Substantive Law .............................................................. 370
1. Classification and Definition ........................................... 370
2. Punishment ..................................................................... 371
B. Special Legislation on Sexual Harassment ............................. 371
Annexures
ANNEXURE I
The Criminal Law (Amendment) Act, 1983...............................377
ANNEXURE-I-A
Relevant Provisions of the Indian Penal Code, 1860..................384
ANNEXURE I-B
Relevant Provisions of the Indian Evidence Act, 1872 ...............385
ANNEXURE I-C
Relevant Provisions of the Constitution of India .......................388
ANNEXURE I-D
Relevant Provisions of the Code of Criminal
Procedure, 1973 ...................................................................390
ANNEXURE - IE
The Relevant Provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure
(Amendment) Act, 2005 .......................................................391
ANNEXURE II
Law Commission of India—42nd Report, Indian Penal Code,
Government of India, Ministry of Law, June, 1971 .............395
ANNEXURE III
Law Commission of India—84th Report on Rape and Allied
Offences, Government of India, Ministry of Law and
Justice, April, 1980................................................................399
ANNEXURE IV
Law Commission of India—156th Report on the Indian
Penal Code, Ministry of Law and Justice, Government
of India, August, 1997 ..........................................................407
ANNEXURE V
Law Commission of India—172nd Report—On Review
of Rape Laws, March, 2000 ..................................................409
ANNEXURE VI
United Kingdom Criminal Justice and Public
Order Act, 1994 ...................................................................415
ANNEXURE VI-A
United Kingdom Sexual Offences Act, 2003 ..............................416
ANNEXURE VI-B
United Kingdom Criminal Justice Act, 2003 ..............................429
ANNEXURE VII
United States of America Federal Criminal Code, 1986 .............433
ANNEXURE VII-A
United States of America Federal Rules of Evidence, 2003 .........439
ANNEXURE VIII
Pakistan Ordinance VII of 1979 .................................................443
ANNEXURE IX
Australia New South Wales Crimes Act, 1900 ............................449
ANNEXURE X
Draft Sexual Harassment of Women at their Work
Place (Prevention) Bill, 2000 ................................................457
ANNEXURE X-A
Sexual Harassment of Women at their Work Place
(Prevention) Bill, 2003 .........................................................462
ANNEXURE X-B
The Sexual Harassment of Women at the Workplace
(Prevention and Redressal) Bill, 2004 ..................................469
ANNEXURE X -C
National Commission For Women Code Of Conduct
For Workplace .......................................................................489
ANNEXURE X-D
Government of India, Department of Personnel
& Training, Office Memorandum .......................................493
ANNEXURE X-E
Government of India, Department of Personnel & Training,
Office Memorandum No.11013/10/97-Estt.(A),
dated 13.07.1999 ..................................................................497
ANNEXURE X-F
Government of India, Department of Personnel & Training,
Office Memorandum No.11013/11/2001-Estt.(A),
dated 12.12.2002 ..................................................................498
ANNEXURE X-G
Government of India, Department of Personnel & Training,
Notification No.11012/5/2001Estt.(A), dated 01.07.2004....499
ANNEXURE X-H
The Sexual Harassment Of Women At Work Place
(Prevention, Prohibition And Redressal) Bill, 2006 ..............500
ANNEXURE XI
United Kingdom The Employment Equality (Sexual
Orientation) Regulations, 2003 ............................................533
ANNEXURE XII
United States of America (Title VII of the Civil Rights Act
of 1964) ................................................................................539
ANNEXURE XII-A
United States of America (Title IX of the Education
Amendments of 1972)..........................................................544
ANNEXURE XIII
Hong Kong Relevant Provisions of Sex Discrimination
Ordinance CAP 480 .............................................................549
ANNEXURE XIV
Western Australia Relevant Provisions of Equal
Opportunity Act, 1984 .........................................................551
ANNEXURE XV
National Commission For Women .............................................553
Index .............................................................................................. 563


 
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